The Necklace of Diamonds & String of Pearls: The Duo Counter-Reactive Game That Deems Over The World


  • Aashna Parikh Student, Navrachana International, Vadodara Author
  • Bushra Kureshi Assistant Professor, Karnavati University Author


The Necklace of Diamonds, The String of Pearls, Belt And Road Initiative, Middle Corridor Initiative, Act East Policy, Asia-Africa Growth Corridor, Malacca Strait, Hormuz Strait


The recognised commercial ties and related choke spots in the Indian Ocean have heightened Sino-Indian tensions there. For which domination over trade routes may result from control over these crucial choke points. The People’s Republic Of China (PRC) and India, two of Asia's most powerful developing nations, aim to expand their influence over the Indian Ocean in order to gain global trade market supremacy. PRC has used a strategy known as "The String of Pearls" to express its aggressiveness by building ports in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Myanmar. India's response took the shape of "Necklace of Diamonds," where it strengthened ties and established alliances with Oman, Iran, Myanmar, Singapore, and Bangladesh, as well as other countries around Asia through the "Middle Corridor" programme. According to the findings of this qualitative research paper: India and PRC attempt to balance one another by bolstering their economies through respective "String of Pearls" and "Necklace of Diamonds" policies in order to enhance political power and stability on a global scale.


String Of Pearls: Meeting The Challenge Of China’s Rising Power Across The Asian Littoral

String Of Pearls And Necklace Of Diamonds: Sino-Indian And GeoStrategic Competition In The Indian Ocean INDI AN-GEO-STRATEGIC-COMPETITION-IN-THE-INDIAN-OCEAN.pdf

AU. (2022, August 2). India’s “Necklace of Diamonds” Strategy. Air University. Retrieved from display/Article/3113633/indias-necklace-of-diamonds- strategy/ (Accessed: November 26, 2022)

Basak, S. (2022, February 2). How Is India’s Access to Oman’s Duqm Port Linked to China’s Maritime Schemes? The Quint.Retrieved from (Accessed: November 24, 2022)

Bhaumik, S. (2020). The India-Myanmar Kaladan Project: Vision and Reality. Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (TOAEP), Policy Brief Series No. 106.

Brewster, D. (2010). An Indian Sphere of Influence in the Indian Ocean? Security Challenges, 6(3), 1–20.

Brewster, D. (2014). Beyond the ‘String of Pearls’: Is there really a Sino-Indian security dilemma in the Indian Ocean? Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 10(2), 133–149. 10.1080/19480881.2014.92235

Brewster, D. (2018). India and China at Sea: Competition for naval dominance in the Indian Ocean. Oxford University Press.

Chaudhuri, P. P. (2015, January 10). Churning of the Indian Ocean. Hindustan Times. Retrieved from (Accessed: December 10, 2022)

Collins, G. (2016). China’s Evolving Oil Demand: Slowing Overall Growth, Gasoline Replacing Diesel as Demand Driver, Refined Product Exports Rising Substantially. Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy

EurAsian Times Desk. (2020, July 15). From Singapore’s Changi Naval Base to Oman’s Duqm Port, How Is India CounteringChinese String of Pearls? Retrieved from. string-of-pearls/ (Accessed: October 14, 2022)Government of India. (2019). Data. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Retrieved from default/files/publication_reports/Energy%20Statistics%20201 9-finall.pdf (Accessed: June 06, 2022)

Gupta, P. S. (1987). The Indian Ocean in World Politics: Reflections On Its Future. India Quarterly, 43(3–4), 195–212.

Gurjar, S. (2022, July 1). Why is India Enhancing its Engagement with Indonesia and Vietnam? India Narrative. Retrieved from 37346.html (Accessed: September 02, 2022)

India-Sri Lanka ties: Relations improved in 2016, but China’s influence a cause for concern. (2016, December 23). First Post. Retrieved from a-cause-for-concern-3170374.

Jaishankar, D. (2018). Review of “India and China at Sea: Competition for Naval Dominance in the Indian Ocean” by DavidBrewster. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 40(2), 346–348.

Kaplan, R. D. (2009). Center Stage for the Twenty-first Century: Power Plays in the Indian Ocean. Foreign Affairs, 88(2), 16–32.

Khalid, I., & Gul, A. (2017). Indian Response to Chinese String of Pearls Doctrine. Global Political Review, 2(1), 27–35.

Khurana, G. S. (2008). China’s ‘String of Pearls’ in the Indian Ocean and Its Security Implications. Strategic Analysis, 32(1), 1–39.

KILIÇ, F., & KAYA, T. Ö. (2017). Sino-Indian Strategic Rivalry in the Indian Ocean Region. Insan ve Toplum, 7(2), 155–172.

Kostecka, D. J. (2011). PLACES AND BASES: The Chinese Navy’s Emerging Support Network in the Indian Ocean. Naval War College Review, 64(1), 59–78.

Lanteigne, M. (2008). China’s Maritime Security and the “Malacca Dilemma”, Asian Security, 4(2), 143–161. 10.1080/14799850802006555

Macan-Markar, M. (2022, January 28). India gains foothold in Sri Lanka with Trincomalee oil tank deal. Nikkei Asia. Retrieved from tank-deal (Accessed: March 22, 2022)

Malik, A. R. (2016). Impact of Gwadar Port on the Economy of Pakistan under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, In M. M. Khan, A. R. Malik, S. Ijaz, & U. Farwa China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Game Changer (Eds.) Islamabad: The Institute of Strategic Studies.

Panda, A. (2018, July 17). India Makes Moves at Indonesia’s Strategic Sabang Port. The Diplomat. Retrieved from indonesias-strategic-sabang-port/ (Accessed: September 16, 2022)

Pant, H. V. (2009). India in the Indian Ocean: Growing Mismatch Between Ambitions and Capabilities. Pacific Affairs, 82(2), 279– 297.

Paret, P., Craig, G. A., & Gilbert, F. (Eds.). (1986). Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton University Press.

Ramachandran, S. (2007). China moves into India’s back yard. Asia Times, 13.

Revi, V. (2020). Seychelles and Assumption Island project: Another test for India. Observer Research Foundation (ORF). Retrieved from (Accessed: March 22, 2022).

Revi, V. (2021). India’s approach towards Seychelles in the Indian Ocean Region. Observer Research Foundation (ORF). Retrieved from region/ (Accessed: March 20, 2022).

Roy, S. (2018). India gets access to strategic Oman port of Duqm for military use, Chabahar-Gwadar in sight. Indian Express, 13.

Scott, D. (2006). India’s ‘Grand Strategy’ for the Indian Ocean: Mahanian Visions. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(2), 97–129.

Shekhar, V. (2020, August 20). The Sabang and Aceh-Andamans Initiatives: Beyond Base, Access and Balancing. National Maritime Foundation. Retrieved from initiatives-beyond-base-access-and-balancing/ (Accessed: October 11, 2022)

Tariq, S. (2016). Sino-Indian Security Dilemma in the Indian Ocean: Revisiting the ‘String of Pearls’ Strategy. Regional Studies, 34(3), 3–28.

Than, T. M. M. (2003). Myanmar and China: A special relationship? Southeast Asian Affairs, (1), 189–210.

Vego, M. (2009). Naval classical thinkers and operational art. Naval War College Newport United States.

WB. (2021). China. World Bank Data. Retrieved from (Accessed: December 13, 2021).

India and China at the Crossroads: The Imperatives of - Ensemble,

The Tripolar Great Game In The IOR : Competition, Cooperation and Acute Confrontation

Dreaming India:

India In The Indian Ocean ments=&origin=&initiator=&acceptTC=1

How India Controls China’s Main Weakness: The Malacca Strait




How to Cite

The Necklace of Diamonds & String of Pearls: The Duo Counter-Reactive Game That Deems Over The World. (2024). GLS KALP: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(3), 1-14.